UFO Evidence


Collectively, the evidence clearly indicates that unidentified anomalies in the skies exist, with several investigations consistent in showing a small percentage of about 5-10% to be “unexplainable” UFOs. The UFO phenomenon seems analogous to our understanding of our own physiological marvel, the brain, in which considerably more is unknown, than known, of its complex patterns of behavior.  And what little we do know of the phenomenon is still difficult to comprehend and explain. The UFOs have been seen by multiple witnesses to appear and then disappear instantaneously, move at thousands of miles per hour on radar, change shape, induce physiological effects, activate and deactivate nuclear missiles, and leave a depression in the ground.  Based on such reports, the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) has been the most popular theory advanced by ufologists to explain the phenomenon.

For decades, we have debated the meaning of extraordinary anecdotal evidence such as this.  That is, is this an illusion, advanced military technology, or a craft governed by non-human intelligence (NHI) from another star system or space-time?  Does compelling witness testimony and other forms of UFO evidence, as bizarre as it seems, suggest that the phenomenon is an important concern serious enough to warrant greater consideration by the scientific and political community? I believe so!  Rationale to justify heightened concern and an organized effort to rigorously study the UFO phenomenon includes: 1) the similarity of UFO experiences by credible witnesses worldwide, 2) simultaneous radar and visual sightings, 3) multiple witness sightings, 4) declassified government/military UFO documents, 5) inexplicable aerial maneuvers, 6) compelling commercial and military pilot testimony of UFO encounters, and 7) reported activation and deactivation of nuclear missiles at missile sites in the U.S. and Russia.

UFOs have been reported for decades and possibly even centuries by thousands of people around the world. The phenomenon has been observed frequently above and beneath lakes and oceans, on land, and in space.  But despite the evidence obtained to date, the so-called “smoking gun,” which undeniably verifies that some unexplained UFOs are under intelligent control from somewhere other than Earth, remains elusive.  The UFO phenomenon also remains vague and confusing since the evidence, in general, has been characterized by: 1) hoaxes and confabulation, 2) the lack of scientific analysis of evidence by too few qualified scientists, and 3) unsubstantiated extraordinary claims, e.g., UFOs are from another solar system, the government has knowledge of crashed UFOs, and aliens are abducting humans, etc.

UFO Investigations 

Project Blue Book (PBB): Conducted by the U.S Air Force from 1947 to 1969, PBB compiled and analyzed over 12,000 UFO reports and concluded most were natural phenomena or aircraft with a small percentage (~5%) classified as “unexplained.” More specifically, PBB concluded that UFOs were produced by: 1) a form of mass hysteria, 2) individuals who fabricate reports as a hoax or for publicity, 3) “psychopathological” individuals, and 4) “misidentification of conventional objects”.  These conclusions, however, were contradicted by the results and conclusions presented in Blue Book Special Report #14. This report, prepared from the analysis of UFO cases from 1947-1952 by a private scientific research organization (Battelle Institute), included 3,201 reported UFO sightings that were analyzed by several scientists who categorized the reports into “knowns,” “unknowns,” and “insufficient information.”  The “unknown” group was defined as: “Those reports of sightings wherein the description of the object and its maneuvers could not be fitted to the pattern of any known object or phenomenon.” The results revealed that 69% were identified, 22% unidentified, and 9% had insufficient information to make a determination. In a similar study of 1,307 UFO reports, Air Force astronomer Allan Hendry categorized 89% as “identified” with only 9% as “unknowns” or UFOs.  Both PBB and Hendry found that three types of objects such as, astronomical, aircraft, or balloons, accounted for the vast majority of identifiable UFO reports in the two studies. Interestingly, in the PBB study, the higher the quality of the case, the more likely it was classified as unknown.  For example, 35% of the excellent cases were deemed “unknowns,” as opposed to only 18% of the poorest cases.

The PBB concluded that the unidentified evidence did not represent “technological developments or principles beyond the range of modern scientific knowledge” or extraterrestrial vehicles. However, the report did not conclusively disprove that NHI is visiting earth, only that the evidence contributed nothing to science. Dr. Hynek, who served as a scientific advisor to PBB, expressed his disagreements with the conclusion and considered the research effort as a, cover-up to the extent that the assigned problem was glossed over for one reason or another. In my many years associated with Blue Book, I do not recall ever one serious discussion of methodology, of improving the process of data gathering or of techniques of comprehensive interrogation of witnesses.

Sturrock Panel (1998):  Dr. Peter Sturrock directed and authored a scientific study of UFOs that was published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration titled, Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports. This report presented findings from the proceedings of a scientific review panel on their evaluation of UFO evidence which included radar, photographic, vehicle interference, ground traces, physiological effects on witnesses, and analysis of debris.  The panel, not convinced  the evidence revealed unknown physical processes or indicated involvement of an ET intelligence, recommended that new data, “scientifically acquired and analyzed (especially of well documented, recurrent events), could yield useful information.”  The panel also acknowledged that the UFO problem is, “not a simple one, and it is unlikely that there is any simple universal answer.”  One example cited involved an aircraft above Paris in 1994. The crew reported “a gigantic disk” more than 3,000 feet in diameter, confirmed on military radar, that slowed “abruptly from 110 knots to zero and disappeared.” Other unexplained incidents included sightings of strange lights associated with measured magnetic disturbances, and damage to vegetation and other ground traces from reported UFO landing sites.

COMETA (Committee for in-depth studies):  A French government agency composed of officials, scientists and engineers developed a report in 1999 based on a three-year study of approximately 500 UFO sightings, radar/visual cases, and pilot reports.  The report emphasized that the “accumulation of well-documented observations of UFOs compels us to consider all hypotheses as to the origin of UFOs, but especially the extraterrestrial hypothesis.”  In its conclusion, the COMETA Report titled, UFOs and Defense: What Should We Prepare For? claimed that ”numerous manifestations observed by reliable witnesses could be the work of craft of extraterrestrial origin,” and although not proven, ”strong presumptions exist in its favor.”  The report also concluded that about “5 percent of sightings on which there is solid documentation seem “to be completely unknown flying machines with exceptional performances that are guided by a natural or artificial intelligence.” Retired Major General Denis Letty, who organized the investigation which led to the COMETA, wrote:

All the testimony we retained for the COMTA Report is supported by tangible pieces of evidence: radar echoes, tracks on the ground, photographs, electromagnetic phenomena, and even the modification of the process of photosynthesis in plants.  It became clear that 5 percent of sightings for which there is solid documentation cannot be attributed to man-made or natural sources… I was astonished to discover, and now know for certain, that silent and completely unknown objects sometimes penetrate our airspace with flying capabilities that are impossible to replicate on Earth.  The COMETA Report shows, that the extraterrestrial hypothesis is the most rationale explanation, although of course it has not been proven.

The Condign Report (1996 to 2000): The British Ministry of Defense (MoD) completed a four year study on Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) which analyzed data compiled from reports of UAPs received by the MoD.

The report concluded that “UAPs exist but they are not space ships. They are natural, atmospheric and other phenomena, some of which are not fully understood.”1 Perceived as a “solid craft” by many witnesses, the report emphasized that plasma, created by burning meteors, was the likely explanation.  The report stated, “the conditions and method of formation of the electrically-charged plasmas and the scientific rationale for sustaining them for significant periods is incomplete and not fully understood.” Having reviewed over 100 UFO reports over a 30 year period, the author of the report wrote, “the possibility exists that a fatal accident might have occurred in the past as a result of aircrew taking sudden evasive action to avoid a UFO when flying fast and low.”  The Condign report has been criticized for insufficient scientific methodology employed by its apparent lack of direct in-depth investigations of reported sightings and total reliance on the analysis of their UAP database.

Official Testimony

The more recent exopolitical movement within ufology, as evidenced by the Disclosure Project (www.disclosureproject.org), pioneered by Dr. Steven Greer, and the Citizen Hearing on Disclosure (www.citizenhearing.org), led by Stephen Bassett, has served to facilitate the end of alleged UFO secrecy through the disclosure of UFOs and ET intelligence visiting Earth by the government and military.  To date over 500 individuals from the government, military, and intelligence community have reported their “experience with UFOs, extraterrestrials (ET), ET technology, and the cover-up that keeps this information secret.”4 Testimony provided by those engaged in UFO research, those who had direct UFO encounters, and by those involved with government or military related UFO incidents, lend support to the possibility that UFOs are intelligently controlled physical objects.  The continued attempts to uncover information believed to be classified in this fashion have helped both members of our political system and the general public to better understand the relative importance of the UFO phenomenon but have not influenced those “in the know” to disclose “what they know” (if they know) about UFOs to the public.

Steven Greer’s book titled, Disclosure: Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History, provides a comprehensive review of the testimony presented at the 2001 Project Disclosure meeting at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. and may be viewed at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtmpaM0PqyI, and at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkswXVmG4xM.  Some of the uniquely compelling testimony from pilots, and military and government officials provided at the National Press Club in 2010 and 2001 are presented below:

S. Greer, during his opening statements at the 2001 press club stated that UFOs are “structured craft often traveling at thousands of miles per hour,” that “suddenly stop, hover or move in a nonlinear fashion. These are solid objects. They are metallic and they give strong and unambiguous radar returns.” Dr. Claude Poher, a retired astrophysicist and space research engineer from the National Center for Space Studies in France who founded the Group for the Study of Unidentified Aerospace Phenomena (GEPAN) in France added, “the official conclusion of GEPAN in 1979, was that about 15% of cases remained unidentified after careful analysis by our experts. We concluded that the objects, in most of these cases, were compatible with flying machines whose flight physics were foreign to the expert’s knowledge.”

U.S. and Soviet Space-UFO Incidents

Controversial reports of U.S. and Soviet astronaut UFO encounters exist in the literature, some of which include uncorroborated claims. These include: 1) astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong who are alleged to have said “enormous spacecraft are out there” and that “they’re on the moon watching us,” during their historic Apollo 11 moon landing, and 2) “all Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin-flying saucers, or UFOs.” Such reports have been denounced by the astronauts and NASA. Probably the most intriguing testimony (if true) by an astronaut was provided by Gordon Cooper who flew in both the Project Mercury and Gemini space program missions.  In a 1973 interview, Cooper stated: 

I was a witness to an extraordinary phenomenon, here on this planet earth.  I saw with my own eyes a defined area of ground being consumed by flames, with four indentations left by a flying object which had descended in the middle of a field.  Beings had left the craft (there were other traces to prove this). They seemed to have studied topography, they had collected soil samples and, eventually, they returned to where they had come from, disappearing at enormous speed. At Edwards Air Force Base I was having some of the cameramen film precision landings. A saucer flew right over them, put down three landing gears, and landed out on the dry lakebed. They went out with their cameras towards the UFO. It lifted off and flew off at a very high rate of speed. … I had a chance to hold it [the film] up to the window to look at it. Good close-up shots. There was no doubt in my mind that it was made someplace other than on this earth. … In my opinion they were worried it would panic the public if they knew that someone had vehicles that had this kind of performance. So they started telling lies about it.

Edgar Mitchell, Ph.D., the sixth man to walk on the moon on the Apollo 14 mission said:

Yes, there have been ET visitations. There have been crashed craft. There have been material and bodies recovered. There has been a certain amount of reverse engineering that has allowed some of these craft, or some components, to be duplicated. And there is some group of people that may or may not be associated with the government at this point, but certainly were at one time, that have this knowledge. They have been attempting to conceal this knowledge or not permit it to be widely disseminated. … People in high level government have very, very little, if any, valid information about this. Most have no more knowledge than the man in the street. … [As to] the question, “How could it be kept secret?” It hasn’t been kept secret. It’s been there all along. But it has been the subject of disinformation in order to deflect attention and create confusion so the truth doesn’t come out. … I believe it is a very important effort that we get Congressional oversight of all this.

STS-80 Mission: Physician and retired NASA astronaut Story Musgrave, a crew member aboard the space shuttle STS-80 Mission, commented on an object that suddenly appeared beneath the shuttle:

I don’t know what it is. Whether it’s a washer, debris, ice particles, I don’t know. But it’s characteristic of the thousands of things which I’ve seen. What is not so characteristic is it appears to [have] come from nowhere. You would think that if it’s facing the dark side or facing a side towards you which is not reflecting the sun, you would think that you would see something there. It’s really impressive.

Musgrave was adamant that the object appeared to be under intelligent control and that it tracked the shuttle. On a speaking tour, at the end of his lecture, Musgrave showed a slide of a drawing of the characteristic “Grey” alien and stated: “These guys are real, I guarantee it.”


Radar-Visual Sightings 

Radar sightings of UFO’s, described as “bizarre blips,” have been reported to appear on military and civil radar screens and execute maneuvers beyond our technical capability. Speeds of over several thousand miles per hour have been described, and many radar “blips” have been simultaneously witnessed as objects visually by observers on the ground and in the air. In the book titled, The Flying Saucerer, author Arthur Shuttlewood claims he once met a retired RAF wing commander who estimated he had witnessed about 700 cases of “radar visual” UFOs or simultaneous observation of UFOs by witnesses on the ground and air.  Up till 1997, the GEPAN reported 101 (21%) out of 489 cases involving simultaneous radar and visual confirmation. Evidence from the U.S. Air Force Blue Book contained 363 aircraft cases of which also 21% involved both radar and visual confirmation. The NICAP reported 81 cases of radar tracking of UFOs, most of which were simultaneous with visual sightings, and a number of which involved use of interceptors.

Unusual radar returns can be due to defracted layers of warm air known as “radar angels” or equipment malfunction.  Despite this possibility, however, many credible radar-visual cases where the UFO was observed from both the ground and air, and confirmed by several different radar systems for hours have been documented.  For example, anomalous radar returns concomitant with other UFO incidents investigated by the University of Colorado’s, Condon Report, was published in a document titled, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. Several incidents mentioned in this report are addressed below:

One of the most interesting radar- visual incidents occurred in Britain in 1956 when an object tracked on radar at 4,000 mph was observed by both personnel in a control tower and crew of a C-47 aircraft.  According to the radar operator, “there was no slow start up or build up to this speed – it was constant from the second it started to move until it stopped.”  The object’s unusual behavior initiated orders to send two interceptors to investigate. When the pilot locked his guns, the UFO vanished and then reappeared behind the plane. Suddenly, a second UFO appeared on radar which was confirmed by the crew. The pilot tried to evade the UFOs but was not successful as they maintained the same distance and location behind the plane. Eventually, the two UFO’s, still being tracked by radar, hovered before travelling in excess of 600 mph and disappeared. The Condon Report concluded:

The preponderance of evidence indicates the possibility of a genuine UFO in this case.  This is the most puzzling and unusual case in the Radar-Visual files. The apparently rational, intelligent behavior of the UFO suggests a mechanical device of unknown origin as the most probable explanation of this sighting.

Since 1982, twelve French aeronautical cases reported to GEPAN/SEPRA included a few radar-visual cases.58 One especially interesting incident occurred on January 28, 1994, near Paris.  An object was observed by several crew members above a cloud layer at an altitude of over 11,000 ft which was described by the captain as resembling a gigantic disk and estimated its diameter to be about 1000 meters, and thickness about 100 meters, with slightly “fuzzy edges.” The witnesses suddenly lost sight of the object when the edges appeared to go out of focus and the object disappeared. Corresponding radar information by the military air traffic control tracked the object’s velocity from 110 knots to zero. Thus, there was excellent correspondence between radar and visual observations.  Additional radar-visual sighting incidents are mentioned in Pilot Sightings below:


Pilot Sightings  

Pilot and aviation professionals have reported safety-related incidents of spherical UFOs often described as lights, metallic, or glowing objects. The reports are consistent in showing that UFOs demonstrate complex maneuvers at high rates of speed and unusual movements regarded as a hazard by aircrew who encounter them.  In fact, 15 of 44 aviation safety related UFO cases described by the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP) involved near mid-air collisions defined as, collision headings of less than 1,000 ft. of separation.

The NARCAP, founded in 1999 by Dr. Richard Haines, senior aerospace scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center, and chief scientist for the NARCAP, and Ted Roe, was developed because “the aviation industry is operating under a bias that is causing an under-reporting of safety-related encounters with UAP. Without this data, effective procedures have not been implemented and there is a real threat to aviation safety.”  For example, an examination of 120 UFO cases by NARCAP Research Associate, Dr. Teodorani, titled A Comparative Analytical and Observational Study of North American Databases on Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, suggested: 1) “a misunderstanding has contributed to a ‘blind spot’ in research that is overlooking unusual atmospheric phenomena not detectable on radar,” and 2) “spherical UFOs radiate energy and could be a threat to vital aviation systems.” In an article by Haines titled, Aviation Safety in America: A Previously Neglected Factor, an analysis of over one hundred reports of UFOs that he and others collected and analyzed suggested that UFOs are “associated with a very high degree of intelligence, deliberate flight control, and advanced energy management.”

Based on over 3,000 cases of unusual visual and radar sightings of unexplained aerial phenomena, Haines concluded:

Aerial cases documented involve multiple factors: 1) “Sightings of long duration, allowing for accurate voice transmissions and the refinement of the initial identification; 2) Multiple witnesses — co-pilot, crew, passengers, other aircraft in different locations, and occasionally observers from the ground; 3) Onboard radar and ground radar recording the presence of a physical object, often corresponding exactly to the visual sighting, and 4) Direct physical effects on the aircraft, such as equipment malfunction.

In a 2012 study by Dominique F. Weinstein, titled, Aviation Safety and Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: A Preliminary Study of 600 Cases of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) Reported by Military and Civilian Pilots, the author reviewed evidence of pilot encounters with UFOs over a 64 year time period.  Of 600 reported cases, 443 cases (74%) were described as “objects” (42% circular-shaped), and in 162 cases (27%), pilot observation was confirmed by ground and/or airborne radar. Weinstein concluded that the most frequent events with potential impact(s) on aviation safety were as follows: 1) “UFO approached aircraft on a collision course” (78 cases), and 2) “UFO circled or maneuvered close to aircraft” (59 cases). Further, in 81 cases (14%) pilots reported alleged EM effects on one or more aircraft systems such as radio and compass systems which were the predominant systems affected. According to Weinstein, “this analysis confirms the potential impact on aviation safety and the need for a serious study of these phenomena by governmental aviation departments and the International Civil Aviation Organization of the United Nations.”

UFOs and Nuclear and Missile Sites

In a book titled, UFOs and Nukes: Extraordinary Encounters at Nuclear Weapons Sites, leading UFO researcher Robert Hastings summarized his work over the past 40 years interviewing over 140 former and retired U.S. military personnel, and nuclear weapons specialists of their UFO encounters.  One interesting case addressed in his book occurred on June 24,1984 when security guards at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant near Peekskill, New York reported seeing a UFO over the plant, about 30o ft above the exhaust funnel of one of the plant’s three nuclear reactors for approximately 15 minutes.  Security guards who saw the UFO described them as “huge in size, diamond-shaped and approximately 450 feet in length.” The object’s color changed from first white, to blue, red, green and then to amber.  Police officer, Sgt. Karl Hoffman, said the UFO had a “dozen white lights” in V- formation that slowly moved towards the power plant. According to Hastings:



The evidence is not convincing enough for the skeptical community to support the widely-held viewpoint that UFOs are intelligently controlled physical craft of extraterrestrial or extra-dimensional origin.  In contrast, many ufologists believe that compelling UFO evidence indicates that non-human intelligent beings are operating UFOs and interacting with humans. This perspective is primarily based on the following: 1) UFOs extraordinary aerial maneuvers appear to defy gravity and inertia; 2) varying sizes, shapes, and “shape-shifting” behavior; 3) revealed government/military declassified UFO documents; 4) psychological and physiological effects on humans, 5) interference with airplane systems, and nuclear missiles at bases in the U.S and Russia, and 6) witness encounters of “high strangeness” with physical craft and their occupants, among others.  Alternatively, in light of the somewhat controversial and largely anecdotal nature of the evidence cited, the often limited and inadequate application of acceptable scientific methods to study the phenomenon, along with a touch of UFO hoaxes, and “confirmation bias,” have led the vast majority of scientists to regard the UFO evidence as too unreliable to believe alien beings have visited Earth.

While controversy exists as to whether the quality of evidence provides undeniable proof that NHI governs the phenomenon, the evidence clearly verifies the existence of very strange aerial events, which appear as a form of technologically advanced physical objects of unknown origin.  Based on consistent, long-standing witness testimony worldwide, it is difficult to deny that physical objects are performing inexplicable maneuvers in our skies. Nike Pope, an advocate of the ET hypothesis, who worked for the British Government’s Ministry of Defense (MoD) and spent several years investigating reports of UFO sightings for the MoD, proposed that some UFOs are extraterrestrial life from other planets in physical craft visiting Earth. Pope stated:

The records of UFO reports describe many examples of craft that are silent, divide into smaller segments, and zip away noiselessly at amazing speeds. Not only do ordinary people report them, but so do military personnel.

The issue of the validity of evidence remains at the heart of the UFO phenomenon.  The general scientific community, who tend to ignore theories not consistent with accepted norms, dispute evidence which support the UFO phenomenon.  That is, evidence must be subjected to scientific study capable of reproduction and authentication before concluding that an alien intelligence is operating UFOs.


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